1. Partially Cover the Water’s Surface

Cover as much of the surface of your tank as you can. Consider using c-clamps to secure plywood or polystyrene foam insulation to partially cover the top of your trough. Troughs generally have a large surface area; covering a portion of that keeps heat in while still allowing horses access to water. Improve the insulation further by piling snow on top of the board covering the trough- the snow will provide extra insulation from heat loss.

2. Bigger Troughs

The bigger your vessel, the longer it takes to freeze. A standard bucket will freeze faster than a 150-gallon tank. A large volume of water insulates itself and that makes a big difference in how long it will stay thawed. If you can, plan in advance, before temperatures drop, to fill your largest tank(s) all the way to the brim.

Build your own water reservoir using a raised garden bed kit and a recycled tarp
Build your own large water reservoir using a raised garden bed kit and a recycled tarp


3. Partially Bury Your Stock Tank or Buckets

You can slow or prevent your trough from freezing in winter by draining it, digging a shallow hole underneath, and placing the tank in the small hole. Pile the displaced dirt around the sides. This method is great for any farm with outdoor tanks. Even if you have electric heaters, this method can help use ground heat to reduce dependence on heaters.

Add extra insulation during feeding time by tucking your horse’s hay right up against the sides of the tank.

4. Build a DIY Double-Walled Stock Tank

I’ve used this one a lot during the worst of our winter storms. In the same way that a double-walled tumbler keeps drinks hot or cold, one of the most effective ways electricity-free ways to keep water from freezing is a DIY double-walled tank. Placing one bucket inside of another to slow the escape of heat through the sides of the tank or bucket.

You can use this method with all sizes from stock tank to 5-gallon bucket. First just find an old leaky stock tank and place a slightly smaller Rubbermaid type stock tank inside. Then insulate the space in between the two troughs with whatever insulating material you can find. Insulation or Styrofoam work the best, but dirt, straw, or hay chaff work too. Paired with a partial cover, this generally keeps a large tank from freezing over for a long period of freezing weather. Read a longer tutorial on this trough insulation method.

5. Remove, Don’t Just Break Ice

When winter chores include breaking the ice in troughs and buckets, actually remove the frozen chunks of ice from the stock tank. Removing ice instead of just breaking it, and then refilling the tank with water above freezing will help extend the amount of time until the tank freezes over again.

5. Poo: Nature’s Heat

In a pinch, harness the power of manure! During the worst of our electricity-outage-causing winter storms, we’d

    1. Grab a muck bucket and fill it with fresh manure.
    2. Put a water bucket on top of the manure, inside the muck bucket,
    3. Stuff straw in between the walls of the muck bucket and the bucket

It’s weird but it works! When done during evening chores in temperatures in the 20’s, that 5-gallon bucket remained ice-free while the 150-gallon tank had an inch of ice by morning. The picture below illustrates this method. The bottom of the black muck bucket contained fresh manure, but the water in the blue bucket stayed clean- and warm!

Preventing Horse Water in Buckets, Troughs, and Stock tanks from Freezing

More Winter Horsekeeping Tips

In 2007, and again in 2008, massive ice storms hit Southwest Missouri, leaving trees and power lines covered in up to 1.5 inches of ice and cutting off electricity to rural areas for weeks. During those winters, nature forced us to learn lot of tricks for winter horsekeeping without electricity.

Today I’m going to share some electricity-less winter hacks with you. Whether you are preparing for disaster, reducing reliance on electricity, or just seeking ways to deal with unseasonably cold weather for your climate, keeping buckets thawed without electricity is possible. If you are without electricity (by disaster or by choice) keep reading for 6 methods to keep your horse’s water thawed in freezing temperatures without the use of a heater.

Carrying Water Buckets

If all else fails and your buckets and troughs freeze, don’t panic. As long as you have water in your home you’ll be able to water your horse by hauling water in buckets. Even in extreme winter weather, running buckets every hour or two from your home to your horse can help your horse stay healthy and hydrated.

Store Water Hoses Indoors in the Winter

It can feel like a lot of work to coil up a wet, cold host after watering, but if your freezing temperatures are likely to outlast your water supply, you’ll want to plan on storing your hose indoors in a heated mudroom or laundry room so that when you need to refill your horse’s water you won’t be left with a frozen, nonfunctional hose.

Plan for More Water than you Think You Need

Often, weather patterns that create freezing temperatures bring very dry air which will cause the water to evaporate faster than would be the case during summer weather.

Horses are adapted well to cold and can break ice

Most horses know how to break through a layer of ice in a tank. If you have large troughs that are unlikely to freeze through, you may just need to keep an eye on the trough to check that the horses are breaking the ice as needed.

I’ve witnessed all of our horses breaking ice, but not all horses will know to try. (It seems to be partly instinct, and partly behavior learned from watching other horses during winter turnout.) Even in single digits temperatures, many horses will keep breaking ice through the night to keep a muzzle-sized hole open in the morning.


If your stock tank is near a fence or you have electricity ran near the stalls in your barn, you can purchase heated buckets or heaters for stock tanks for a very affordable fee. These heaters are made for use in agricultural settings and are very tough and safe. Be sure to do your research or ask for help from a knowledgeable employee when shopping, though, as some heaters are not safe in some types of tanks


Electric heaters are an easy option but aren’t always available. Winter storms can cut electricity and sudden cold snaps can leave farms in temperate climates struggling for a solution to ice. If you have ice but no heater, here are a few tips for keeping water tanks thawed when you do not have access to an electric water heater.

Read more about winter horsekeeping by clicking below:

ride and turnout in snow   

3 thoughts on “6 Easy Ways to Prevent Water Troughs from Freezing without an Electric Heater”

  1. My husband and I recently bought a small farm a few weeks ago and we are trying to figure out how to keep our water troughs clean and we are also worried about the troughs freezing in the winter. You mention that the bigger your vessel, the longer it will take to freeze. Also, a large volume of water will insulate itself and that makes a big difference in how long it stays thawed. The tip to partially bury your water troughs is great because it is something easy that my husband can do right away.

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